The Ultimate Guide to Cyber Security – All You Need to Know

The Ultimate Guide to Cyber Security – All You Need to Know

We sleep in a digital era which understands that our private information is more vulnerable than ever before. We all sleep in a world which is networked together, from internet banking to government infrastructure, where data is stored on computers and other devices. A little of that data may be sensitive information, whether that be holding, financial data, personal information, or other sorts of data that unauthorized access or exposure could have negative consequences.

Cybersecurity is thprocess of defending computing systems, networks, and programs from unknown attacks. It’s made from two words one is cyber and other is security. Cyber is said to the technology which contains systems, network and programs or data. Whereas security associated with the protection which incorporates systems security, network security and application and data security. It is the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to safeguard networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, theft, damage, modification or unauthorized access. We will also define cybersecurity as the set of principles and practices designed to safeguard our computing resources and online information against threats. Because of ultimately depending upon the computer for storing all data during era, cyber security can be a critical function.  

 These cyberattacks are usually geared toward accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information; extorting money from users; or interrupting normal business processes. Implementing effective cybersecurity measures is very challenging today because there are more devices than people, and attackers are becoming more innovativeTop of Form 

 Now let’s know about cyber security even more detailly.   

Cyber Security – Definition

Cyber security is the practice of protecting computer, mobile devices, servers, electronic systems, data and networks from attack, damage or unauthorized access. It defends technologies from any malicious attack. Cyber security is also known as Electronic Information Security or Information Technology Security.  

Cyber Security – Elements and Categories

There are several elements for an effective cyber security. The term, Cyber security applies in variety of contents, from e-commerce to mobile browsing. For a powerful cyber security system certain element are needed. To understand this in a better way, lets divide it into the following categories.    Various elements of cyber security is as following:  
  • Network Security – It is the method of protecting the computer networks from viruses or malware. It secures the network from targeted intruders and attackers. The main job of Network security is to protect the reliability and usability of the network as well as data. A network penetration test is conducted to assess the vulnerabilities during a system and network.  
           It refers to broad range security policies for thwarting and monitoring unauthorized access, misuse, damage to an automatic data processing system and other network systems. Network security extends coverage to diverse computer networks, surrounding private and public communication systems among corporations and organizations.
  • Application Security – This security focuses on keeping software free from all threats and issues. Apps requires constant updates and certain testing, to ensure that it protects the device from any attack. The successful security is formed on the designing itself before the it goes to deploy state.  
Applications play a vital role in business ventures; that’s why every firm has to specialize in web application security. Web application security is very important so as to guard customers, their information and interests. Application security helps in thwarting any attempts to violate the authorization limits set by the protection policies of the pc system or networks. 
  • Information Security – The main job of this security, is to protect the privacy of data and integrity, both in the transit and storage. Information includes business records, personal data, customer’s data, property etc. Hence, it’s important for an organization to possess strong cyber security for information to forestall its leakage. Information security involves safeguarding sensitive information from illegitimate access, usage, or the other quite damage.  
  This also ensures that the important data doesn’t wander away when any issue like natural disasters, malfunction of system, theft or other potentially damaging situation arises. Confidentiality, integrity and availability are the main characteristics defining information security. It also includes Data Confidentiality, Data integrity, Data availability, and Data authenticity 
  • Data Security – Do you know inside of network and application is data. Data security protects the data of the company and customer information safe. 
  • Operational security (OPSEC): Operations security is employed to guard organization functions. It identifies important information and assets to trace down threats and vulnerabilities that exist within the functional method.  
It protects data assets. Meaning, while a user is browsing, operational security decides how and where to store data or share data. 
  • Cloud Security – The world has gone digital and people simply don’t store data in hard disks anymore. With readily available of high-speed internet, many prefer to simply upload their files in the cloud services. They can have it any time they want as well as not have to carry it. Isn’t it cool? Protecting data in an online environment isn’t an easy task. That’s exactly what cloud security do. 
  • Mobile Security – Who doesn’t have a mobile phone in this era? And almost everyone stores their personal info in it. So mobile security is must. It involves basically almost every type of security challenge in themselves.  
  • Disaster recovery and Business continuity – It defines how an organisation responds to cybercrime 0r cyber security incident. If all of a sudden, a natural disaster occurred or any other event, your data must be protected. Or any other incident that led to loss of operations or data. Disaster recovery shows how the organisation restores it data and move forward. Whereas Business continuity is the plan that the organisation decides.   
Business continuity planning (BCP), also called disaster recovery, is about being prepared for any quite interference or cyber threat by identifying threats to the systems on time and analysing how it should affect the operations and methods to counter that threat.  
  • Infrastructure and Database Security – This is another layer of the Cyber security. Everything in a network contains physical equipment and databases. Hence, protecting this is as equal as any other security. 
  • Endpoint Security – Endpoint security is the process of protecting remote access by a user to a company’s network. As remote access is important part of the business while a weak point to get breach in the data. Endpoint or End-user education handles the most unpredictable cyber security factor. Anyone can induce a virus by mistakenly to the secure system. Everyone must learn this education. You ned to follow good social practises to avoid this, such as delete suspicious email, not to plug in unknown USB. These little steps are highly necessary to protect the security of any organisation.  
It’s important for a corporation to coach their employees about cyber security because human error is one in every of the most important causes of information breaches. Every employee should bear in mind of the common cyber threats and will have the knowledge to cater to them. Training will allow management to accustom themselves with system users and threats to that and user training will help in eliminating resistance to vary and advancements and cause user scrutiny on a more in-depth level. 
  • Identity Management – It is a process of acknowledging the access that an individual has in an organisation.  
  • Leadership commitment – It’s important to possess leadership commitment in organization and corporations so as to possess a powerful cyber security program. Without having the leadership within the team it’s complicated to develop, implement and maintain the cyber security processes 

Cyber Security – The Importance

Really? Is this even a question? Cyber Security is the most vital thing in order to protect your privacy than anything else. It very important because almost big organization has gone online. For instances, Government, corporate, military, medical and financial organizations acquire, process and as well as store unimaginable amount of information on cloud and other services. A major portion of that data is sensitive information, whether that be material possession, financial data, personal information, or other kinds of data that unauthorized access or exposure could have negative consequences. These organisations send and receive sensitive data across the networks, to the other devices, in order of doing businesses. Cyber security is highly required here as it serves as a medium to protect the crucial information while the system process or store it. Because the volume and standard of cyber-attacks grows rapidly. Companies and organizations, especially people appointed with the task of safeguarding information about the national security, health, or financial records needs to shield it perfectly. As early as March 2013, the nation’s top intelligence officials cautioned that cyber-attacks and digital spying are the highest threat to national security, eclipsing even terrorism 

Cyber Security – The Challenges 

Cyber security is job full of challenges only. The greatest risk is itself only, as it is ever evolving. Before this much advanced digital era, companies and government focused their cyber security to their perimeter, for shielding their most crucial data and components against any unknown threats. Now a days with over billions of people settling in online, it is really impossible and insufficient to go with the older methods. Because not only the uses increased, but also threats increased with it. And that’s one of the major challenges of Cyber security. Calculating this, advisory organisations introduced more proactive and advanced offers to the cyber security. In US, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) induced some guidelines in its risk assessment framework. It shifted towards continuous monitoring, real time location and data focused approach towards security.  These steps were against the standard perimeter model.  

Cyber Security - The Scale of Cyber Threat

The cyber threat isn’t just stopping, rather it is just evolving at a rapid speed. The global cyber threat continues to increase as the number of data breaches per year is also increasing. As per a study by Risk Based Security, a whopping number of 7.9 billion record has been exposed by a data breach in the first nine year of 2019 itself. To let you know, this is the twice the number of the records that got exposed in the in same time in 2018.  

 Having counted the range of the cyber threat to rise, the International Data Corporation guessed that global budget on cyber security will climb to 133.7 billion dollars by the top of 2022. Although government across the worldwide has understood this problem and considered it equally threat. They responded with guidelines to the organisation exercising the cyber security practises.   

 Do you want to know where does most breaches happen? Medical services, public entities and retailers experience maximum breaches. As it is responsible for malicious crime on the greatest number of incidents. Shocking to hear, these sectors are more exposed to cybercrime. Because they collect financial and medical data on the regular basis. The treat isn’t limited to that, the business who uses networks can also get targeted for customer data and attacks or corporate espionage.  

 The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), present in the US has developed a framework known as Cyber security framework. This software can be used to battle the rapid increase of malicious code and help in early detection of them. Not only that, it continuously monitors the real time of ll the electronic devices.    

 The importance of system monitoring is echoed in an article named, “10 steps to cyber security”. This guidance was provided by the National Cyber Security Centre of UK government. In Australia, theAustralian Cyber Security Centre(ACSC) publishes article on daily basis about latest cybersecurity threats.   

Types of cyber threats

There is a three-fold cyber security threat count as per the cyber threat controls.  

  1. Cybercrime – It can be a single person or group of people targeting systems or rich persons for financial gain. In short, they blackmail them digitally.  
  2. Cyberattack – It is always a group of people targeting another band of people for politically information gathering.  
  3. Cyberterrorism – Well, the word terrorism explains a lot about this. It is intended on the electronic systems to cause panic or fear and destruction on a large scale.  

I know what you are thinking right know! How does this malicious criminal get control of computer systems?  

To your curiosity, here are the common methods used to threaten cyber security.


Malware means malicious software. One out of five among the common cyber threats, malware is there. The malware is a software that is used by a hacker or cybercriminal to create damage to a legitimate user’s computing system. Often spread via an unsolicited email attachment or legitimate-looking download, malware is also employed by cybercriminals to form money or in politically motivated cyber-attacks.  

 There are variety of various styles of malware, including:  


  • Virus: A self-replicating program that attaches itself to wash file and spreads throughout an automatic data processing system, infecting files with malicious code.  
  • Trojans: It is a kind of malware that’s disguised as legitimate software. Want to know how? The hackers or cybercriminals trick users into downloading trojan into their computer. After that, the malware cause damage to your databases or simply collect your private information.  
  • Spyware: Do you know a spy works? A spy simply watches your every step to acquire information about you. Similarly, Spyware is program that secretly records the user’s doing. It is thereafter used by the cybercriminals who can make use of your information against you. For instance, spyware could capture Mastercard details.  
  • Ransomware: The name itself is suggesting what it means. This malware locks down a user’s file and data. Then it threatens them for erasing it while asking them pay a ransom.  
  • Adware: Advertising software which might be accustomed spread malware.  
  • Botnets: This is just not limited to one device, rather than it is a network of malware. It infects the computers which the cyber criminals use to run certain tasks online without the user’s permission. 

SQL injection

An SQL (structured language query) injection could be a kind of cyber-attack want to lead off and steal data from a database. The hackers or cyber criminals take advantage of vulnerabilities by inserting malicious code into the databased of a data driven application via a maliciously SQL statement. This provides them access to the sensitive information contained within the database.  


Phishing is when cybercriminals target victims with emails that appear to be from a legitimate company requesting sensitive information. Phishing attacks are often accustomed dupe people into turning in Mastercard data and other personal information. Man-in-the-middle attack A man-in-the-middle attack could be a style of cyber threat where a cybercriminal intercepts communication between two individuals so as to steal data. As an example, on an unsecure Wi-Fi network, an attacker could intercept data being passed from the victim’s device and therefore the network.  

Denial-of-service attack 

A denial-of-service attack is the process in which cybercriminals stop a computing system from running by messing with the networks and servers with traffic. This renders the system unusable, preventing a corporation from effecting vital functions.  

Latest cyber threats

Want to know what are the latest cyber threats? This latest cyber threat seems very friendly and unharmful but maliciously attack your data. The UK, US and Australian governments reports on.  

Here goes the list of foremost recent cyber threats.  

Dridex malware

In December 2019, the U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ) charged the leader of an organized cyber-criminal group for his or her part during a global Dridex malware attack. This malicious campaign affected the general public, government, infrastructure and business worldwide. Dridex could be a financial trojan with a variety of capabilities. Affecting victims since 2014, it infects computers though phishing emails or existing malware. Capable of stealing passwords, banking details and private data which may be utilized in fraudulent transactions, it’s caused massive financial losses amounting to many millions. In response to the Dridex cyberattacks, the U.K.’s National Cyber Security Centre calms the general public by saying  to believe that devices are patched,  a stronger anti-virus is turned on and all the files are backed up”.  

Romance scams

In February 2020, the FBI warned U.S. citizens to remember of the fraud that cybercriminals commit using several dating sites, chat rooms and applications. Perpetrators cash in of individuals seeking new partners, duping victims into freely giving personal data. The FBI reports that over 114 victims were affected in 2019 through the romance scam. The financial losses from this threat climbed up to 1.6 million dollars.  

Emotet malware 

During late 2019, the Australian Cyber Security Centre warned national organization about the world wide spread global cyber threat from a malware named as Emotet. It could be a sophisticated trojan that may steal data and also load other malware. Emotet thrives on weak password. Just a friendly reminder of the importance of having a strong secure password. 

Cyber safety tips

 Ever wondering how does this business protect themselves from cyber threats? Or even common man?  

To answer all the questions that is dancing in your head, read further. Use this cyber security tips to protect yourself from cyberattacks.  

 Here are safety tips: 

  •  Update your software: Always remember to update your applications and operating system to get more security patches. It helps in data protection.  
  • Use anti-virus software: Antivirus software helps to detect the cyber threat before hand only. For instances, Kaspersky Total Security will detect the malware and removes threats immediately. Keep your antivirus software updated for the most effective level of protection and security.   
  • Keep strong passwords: Make sure that your password are not the easy ones. Instead use numbers, symbols, capital letter and small letter while creating your password. This type of passwords isn’t easily guessable.  
  • Don’t open email attachments: Don’t open email attachments from unknown senders. I, repeat, never ever open. Because, you may fall in a serious trap after that. These so to seem harmless attachments can be infected with malware.  
  • Never click on links in emails from unknown senders or unfamiliar websites: This could be a common way that malware is spread and heavily infect your devise or steal your data.  
  • Avoid using unsecure Wi-Fi networks: This is also very important to remember as you should never use public places Wi-Fi. Because this unsecure network will leave you at the no end.  

 In this current year, criminals have shifted their efforts into cyberspace — with the correct tools and know-how, they’ll commit crimes within the comfort of their living rooms. Cybercriminals use malicious malware, phishing and spam to create scam victims for huge amount of money.  Whether it is an email account, online store or online banking systems, everything is up for grabs because criminals can make huge profit on anything, through online medium. As you know the technology grows every day and become more advanced, but don’t you worry. All you need to follow simple tips to prevent yourself from falling into any trap.  

How to Protect Yourself

When asking yourself “what is cybercrime?”, always remember that cybercrime is a digital threat which comes in the most awkward time The foremost important step to stay in mind when using the web is that you just should never open emails that look suspicious. If a contest or offer seems too good to be true, chances are high that it probably is. Even as if you’d avoid shady areas within the globe, it’s crucial to avoid high-risk areas on the net.  

 While good judgment can help protect you from most Internet threats. It is still significant to put in virus protection software onto your computer because it can help block malware from sources you do not expect. Although the antivirus software is developed and in use by many world class security frameworks to provide customer protection and business too from any type of cybercrime. Using antivirus is one of the best and most cost-effective ways to enhance your security.  

Spam Email Prevention

In addition to get protection against malware, you furthermore may should be alert for spam and phishing emails that try to steal your identity. Spam emails pose a huge threat to consumers because they’re commonly hidden with malware. Or, in many cases, they lead victims to malicious websites designed by the criminal to scam the person. Do you want to know about the typical spam messages? It includes off-shore pharmaceutical advertisements, attractive stock schemes and general unsolicited advertising. By getting lure away by these emails, the victim goes to the fake sites. Then get asked to click on a notification for conforming something. By just clicking this notification, you caused a huge threat to your computer’s security itself.   

Phishing Prevention

Phishing is another popular kind of cybercrime. In this cyber threat, user receive an email from a bank or a financial organization, saying the victim’s account has shown some issues. In order to clear this, the victim must share some bank detail to solve the account trouble. Then the emails contain links that appear to travel to the correct financial site. However, the victim really visit the criminals’ servers, where they steal your account credentials. As a rule of thumb, it’s best to never click links in emails to urge to an internet site. Instead, if you get a notice from a corporation, you’ll be able to open your browser and sort the web site name directly into the address bar. If it seems your account is OK, you’ll then call or email the corporate to report the phishing message.  

Cybercrime Protection

If you want to protect yourself from cyber threats altogether with malware, it’s crucial to possess a comprehensive Internet security suite installed on your system. The important features of Internet security suites include spam filters, parental controls, virus protection and plenty of other safeguards to shield against every type of cybercrime. One amongst the foremost key features of such suites is cloud based security protection which ensures that when browsing the net, if you visit a malicious website by mistakenly, it’ll be blocked way before you become a victim. Like a cherry on the cake, safe banking software included with many suites which adds an extra layer of protection by confirming that while you visit a banking website, it actual legitimate entity and safe. 

Relation between Cyber Crime and Cyber Security

 Cyber crime could be a crime that involves the employment of computer devices and therefore the Internet. It will be committed against a personal, a bunch of individuals, government and personal organizations. Usually, it’s intended to harm someone’s reputation, cause physical or mental harm or to learn from it, for instance, monetary benefits, spreading hate and terror etc. As happened in 1998, a gaggle of Tamil guerrillas, called terrorist group, sent over 800 e-mails to Sri Lankan embassies. The gmails read “We are the web Black Tigers. We are doing this on purpose to damage your communication completely.” Intelligence authorities identified it immediately. Because it was the first known attack by terrorists band against a country’s computing systems. The main principle of cyber crime law is punishing unauthorized access or illegal use of computer systems and therefore the internet with criminal intentions. In order that damage and alteration of systems and data on that may be prevented. However, the biggest threat of cybercrime is on the financial security of a private furthermore because the government.  

Cyber Security

Cyber security may be a technique to safeguard computers, networks, programs, personal data, etc., from unauthorized access and threats. it’s an activity by which information and other communication systems are protected and defended against the unauthorized use or modification or exploitation of the device. Cyber security is additionally called information technology security. It includes the techniques of protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unauthorized access or attacks that may cause damage to them or exploit them in any way. Basically cyber security may be a technical approach to secure systems from such attacks. Good cyber security recognizes all the vulnerabilities and threats a automatic data processing system or network contains. It then identifies the explanation for such vulnerabilities and fixes those vulnerabilities and threats and secures the system. Strong cyber security programs are supported a mixture of technological and human elements.  

Differences between Cyber Security and Cyber Crime

There are certain aspects on which cyber crime and cyber security will be differentiated upon, they are:  

  •  Types of crimes: In cyber security, the sorts of crimes are where a computer software or hardware or network, is that the main target (ransomware, viruses, worms, distributed denial of service attacks etc).  

 In Cyber crimes, the crimes are where a personal or a bunch of people and their data is that the main target. Governments and organizations also can be the targets of cyber crimes (cyber bullying, hate speech, porn trafficking, trolling).  

  •  Victims: There are two types of Victims in these fields and they are quite different from each other. In cyber security, victims are governments and corporations. While on the other hand, in cyber crime, victim can be any one individual, family, corporate or even government.  
  •  Area of Study: Both these fields are studied in numerous areas. Cyber security is handled under applied science, computer engineering, and knowledge technology. Coding, networking and engineering strategies are used for creating networks safer.  

 On the opposite hand, cyber crimes are restrained under Criminology, psychology, sociology. Basically, it’s the theoretical understanding of how and why crime is committed and the way it is prevented.  

Different Categories of Cyber Crimes

The cyber crimes are also broadly classified into four groups.  

Crime against the Individuals

Crimes against the individual refers to those criminal offences which are committed against the desire of a private to cause certain harm to them like physical or mental harm. as an example, assault, harassment, kidnapping, and stalking etc. but in cyber crimes the character of crimes against individual changes a bit bit and takes the shape of cyber stalking, pornography, cyber bulling, ill-usage, fraud, cyber threats etc. like cyber defamation is committed to cause harm to the reputation of a personal within the eyes of other individuals through the cyberspace.  

 Some cyber crimes against individuals are:  


  • Harassment via electronic mails.  
  • Dissemination of obscene material.  
  • Cyber-stalking.  
  • Defamation.  
  • Indecent exposure.  
  • Cheating.  
  • Unauthorized control/access over ADP system.  
  • Email spoofing.  
  • Fraud.  

Crime against Property 

Now, let’s jump to the second option of cybercrime. It is cyber crimes against property. With the expansion of international trade, businesses and consumers are increasingly using computer and also the internet to form, transmit and store information within the electronic from rather than traditional form. This has ultimately result in certain cyber offences which affect a person’s property. These sorts of cyber crimes include cyber vandalism to steal information of other organizations or to steal someone’s bank details, use software to achieve access to an organization’s website etc. this can be like instances of a criminal illegally possessing an individual’s bank or mastercard details. In cyber crime, the hacker steals a person’s bank details to realize access to funds, make purchases online or run phishing scams to urge people to relinquish away their information. they might also use any reasonably malicious software to realize access to an online page with hint. These varieties of crimes include vandalism of computers, holding crimes (Copyright, patented, trademark etc), online threatening etc.  

 Cyber crimes against property include:  


  • Computer vandalism.  
  • Transmitting virus.   
  • Net-trespass.  
  • Unauthorized access / control over automatic data processing system.  
  • Internet thefts.  
  • Software piracy.  
  • Copyright infringement.  
  • Trademark infringement.  

Crime against Governments or Organizations 

If you are thinking, cybercrime cannot harm government, then you are very very wrong. There are some cybercrimes that can threthen International governments or organisations. These cyber crimes are mainly committed for the aim of spreading terror among people of a selected country. The instigators or perpetrators of such crimes are often governments of enemy nations, terrorist groups or belligerents etc. Cyber crimes against Government include cyber attack on the govt. website, military website or cyber terrorism etc. In these types of cyber crime, cyber criminals hack governments or organization’s websites, government firm, and military websites so circulate propaganda or threats or rumors. These cyber crimes are referred to as cybercrimes against Governments or Organizations.  

 Following are the few samples of crime against Governments or Organizations:  

  •  Unauthorized access / control over ADP system.  
  • Cyber terrorism against the govt or organization.  
  • Possession of unauthorized information.  
  • Distribution of Pirate software.  

Crime against Society

Those cyber crimes which affect the society at large are called cyber crimes against society. These unlawful acts are committed with the intention of causing harm or such alterations to the cyberspace which is able to automatically affect the big number of individuals of society. the most target of those varieties of crimes is public at large and societal interests.  

 The cyber crimes against society include the subsequent sorts of crimes:  

  •  Child pornography.  
  • Public nudity of polluting the youth financial crimes.  
  • Sale of illegal articles.  
  • Trafficking.  
  • Forgery.  
  • Online gambling.  
  • Web jacking.  


      In conclusion, cyber security is often considered as a group of guidelines and actions intended and needed to stop cybercrime but cyber security isn’t only limited thereto. the 2 varieties of problems differ considerably in terms of what happens and who the victims are, also because the academic areas that study them. Therefore, the cyber security and cybercrimes, must be acknowledged as separate issues. Both requires different safeguards designed to handle various privacy and security problems. All kinds of data whether it’s personal, governmental, or corporate need high security. The information which belongs to the govt. weaponry, research and developments, banks, defense research and development organization, etc. are highly confidential. Even if a bit of negligence to those data may pose huge treat and damage to the entire nation. Therefore, this type of data need security at a really high level.  

Hence, cyber security is all about protecting government, organizations and company networks, desiring to make it difficult for hackers to search out weaknesses and exploit them or threaten them. Cybercrime, on the opposite hand, tends to focus more on individuals and families online. it’s highly needed that the highest leaders of a corporation or government should invest within the cyber security measures to create it strong and impenetrable. 

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